The cultivation of Hippophae Rhamnoides
Hippophae is a dioecious, spiny, deciduous plant. Its leaves resemble those of willow and appear 7-10 days after the appearance of the flowers.
Its flowers are greenish, abaxially, very small in diameter (3mm), almost imperceptible, and grow before the leaves develop. There are plants bearing only male flowers and plants that carry only females.
The buds from which the male flowers come are more bulky and rounded than those of the females.
Its fruit has a coloration that varies in its maturity, from yellow to red. The shape of the fruit varies from oval, cylindrical to spherical.
It envelops a seed surrounded by the fleshy pericardium. The weight of 100 fruits varies between 40-60 gr. The fruit matures about 100 days from the date of pollination.
Its roots grow mainly in the lateral and numerous secondary roots also develop.
It also has the feature to develop spines at the tip and sides of the shoots.
Hippophaes as well as some other species of the Eleagnacees family develop nodules in roots of 1-2 years of age. Nodules are the common organs of coexistence of plant roots with Frankia which is a type of radiobacteria that bind nitrogen from atmospheric air
THE HYPOLOGY ECOLOGY
Hippophaes can be cultivated from the altitude of the sea up to 3900m. Temperatures tolerated range between -43 ° C and 40 ° C.
This plant, when fully grown, is considered to be drought-resistant. The first 2-3 years, but it must be watered regularly to grow without problems.
The flowers are generally grown in stems of the previous year and their differentiation takes place during the previous blooming period.
Binding of the first fruits can be said to be done at 4-6 years old in seedlings produced from seed and 2-3 years in seedlings produced by cuttings.
Large amounts of pollen is released when the air temperature reaches 8 ° -12 ° C. Female flowers can be fertilized for a 10 day period then lose that possibility. Fertilization is ensured by air because its flowers do not produce nectar and therefore do not attract insects.
Propagation is propagated by seeds or grafts. Seedlings produced by seed are highly varied in their size and yield characteristics. By multiplying with grafts, clonal plants are produced.
Clones have only one parent and are therefore genetically identical to this parent. Rufous proliferation is the most suitable for the production of hippophae plants because it allows us to define the leaf of the plant in advance and thus to determine the proportion of male / female plants in the new plantations we plant.
THE HIPPOPEUS CULTURE
Hippophaes are species that adapt well to climate adversities.
Hippophaes must be grown in locations that receive sunlight without obstacles. All cultivation work that favors good lighting has a beneficial effect.
This plant adapts to a wide variety of soils and can grow even in marginal soils such as gritty soils or sandy, poor in nutrients and with little water retention. The ideal salinity for the hippocampus must be less than 1.5mS / cm.
Hippophae is a plant that is not affected by the type of prior cultivation.
During planting, of course, the soil should be cleaned from the residues of the roots of the previous crop (especially tree-growing).
Because the soil volume utilized by the roots of this plant is small and its roots superficial, during the first three years after its planting, can suffer from a lack of water resulting from the rapid drying of its soil ground of the first centimeters deep.
There are various cultivation techniques that help maintain soil moisture while limiting its losses. One of these techniques is that of covering the soil surface (ground cover) with straw, dry grass or plastic. Although this plant is very resistant to drought conditions, a very prolonged period of drought without rainfall can be detrimental to young seedlings. In cases where irrigation of seedlings is required, even with small amounts of water.
Prepare the soil before planting
Surface on the ground is treated by plowing using a disc wheel. This autocorrection in autumn makes the soil more fluffy, increases its ability to absorb and retain larger quantities of water and improves its natural state when planting the horse in the spring.
The soil is prepared so that seedling planting is clean and free of weeds
Hippophae is a plant that best fits well-drained soils. The underlying horizon is good to be more than one meter deep for most of the year.
The acidity and alkalinity of the soil, except in extreme cases, is not a limiting factor in the cultivation of the hippophae, but this plant prefers a soil pH that is between 5.0 and 8.3.
The planting of a fruit planting plant is highly dependent on soil fertility status and soil moisture.
Prior to planting, some preliminary work has to be done on leveling the ground and setting out the planting lines, as is the case every time a new tree planting is established. The spacing of the planting lines must be 3 – 4 m and the plant distances on the line 2-1.5 m to give about 165 plants per acre.
When installing a horsepower plant, various male / female plants are recommended by various authors, but a ratio ranging between 8-12% is the best.
THE ANNUAL MAINTENANCE WORK OF THE PLANT
The hippophae, has much lower needs for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than other cultivated trees. However, it reacts positively to phosphate fertilizers, mainly in phosphorus-poor soils. An amount of 60-80 kg / ha of superphosphate is recommended to be deeply incorporated into the soil during plant preparation.
An annual 10-15 kg grease of type N, P, K (11-15-15) applied in winter improved the size and quality of the fruit in many cases.
Also, the spraying of trace elements (copper, molybdenum, manganese, iodine, boron and zinc) caused an increase in average fruit weight to 34.5% in some cases.
A delay in the opening of the buds and the growth of flowers in spring, the presence of small chrysanthemum leaves along their branches, the generally reduced growth of the plant and the formation of small fruit are symptoms of zinc deficiency. Hippophae is a very hardy plant that adapts very easily to all adverse climatic conditions.
In the irrigation of the new plantation, we can use many methods. The best methods are two:
With this irrigation, the irrigation tubes are located in columns at a height of 2-2.5 m while the nozzles are located at appropriate distances depending on the plant distances on the planting line and the distances between the lines.
The distances separating the drippers are 20 cm and each of them is capable of delivering 4 liters of water per hour with a pressure of 15 PSI.
Pruning is done in order to create the appropriate size and shape of the bush to ensure the smooth development of production and to facilitate the harvesting of the fruit.
Two ways of pruning formation can be applied to the horseshoes.
Α) Tree with central slightly modified shaft
The goal of this pruning is to create a tree with a main axis. At the end of the second year, each new shoots should be removed from a height of up to 30cm, while at the same time all the lateral shoots should be pruned in one eye so that the end of the stem is prevalent. Cleaning of internal shoots should also be done. To keep the tree at the desired height (no more than 2-2.5 m), the central shaft should be cut after the fourth year at the appropriate height.
Β) Tree in cup form
At the end of the second year, all new shoots that are less than 30 cm above ground are removed. Also remove the end shoots and pruning one side of the side shoots while at the same time clearing them in all shoots to keep the tree at the desired height (<2m). The tree must be pruned each year to remove the old shoots as well those developed internally. The fruit production zone is progressively upward and outward and the plant gradually becomes umbrella.
In general, we can say that moderate annual fruit pruning, favors increased production and prolongs the plant’s productive life. Hippophaes usually reach a height of 2-3m at the age of 4 years. At that age the main trunk of the bush is formed, which must be cleaned each year by the lateral shoots stemming from its base. Long shoots have to be spiked in order to favor the development of lateral shoots. In mature plants that have reached the stage of fruit production, fruit harvesting must be done annually to allow light to enter the bush. Prunes aged over 3 years should also be pruned to prevent premature aging of plants by developing new shoots.
Great attention should also be paid to the removal of offshoots because very undesirable vegetation can develop, resulting in a reduction in the production of our plantation.
The measures to be implemented are:
The use of appropriate soil cover (with plant residues or plastic) or the appropriate mechanical treatment of the soil after planting the seedlings. Soil treatment should not be made at depths of more than 8-10 cm from the surface, so as not to destroy the root system of the horseshoe. By using herbicides, depending on the type of weed.
Η ΣΥΓΚΟΜΙΔΗ ΤΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ
Mechanical harvesting is a necessity for countries, such as European ones, where wages are at a higher level than the Asian ones.
In studies done in Canada, it is estimated that the total cost of walnuts harvesting a plantation, with plants of 10 years old, accounts for 58% of the total cost of production. In other studies this percentage was much higher and reached up to 75%.
In Asia, the harvest is done exclusively by hands and 150 man-hours / acre.
a) The German method
This method consists in cutting off the fruiting branches with scissors, placing these branches together with the fruits in the freezer at temperatures of -25 ° C as soon as possible after being cut off by the trees. The German method has some drawbacks:
We produce every 2 years and if we want to have production every year we have to choose the branches we will harvest each time.
The period of cutting the branches is not the most suitable for pruning fruit trees.
b) The method of vibrating the shoots of the plant
This vibration has a duration and a frequency that varies with which the fruit is detached from the tree. The fruit falls to the ground or to a suitable collector ‘umbrella’ that spreads to the bottom of the tree. The vibration mechanism may be manual or of a larger size and may be motorized.
c) By absorbing the fruits
The mechanism looks like a vacuum cleaner, which can have 4-12 absorbers. The harvest is done by absorbing the fruits. This method gives good quality fruit and has the ability to distinguish leaves from fruit.
d) By hand
It requires a lot of wages, considering that a trained worker picks up 4-5 kilos per hour.
THE USE OF THE HIPPOPEUS
Hippophaes are one of the very few plant species that use almost all of their parts, such as fruits, leaves, bark, seeds, wood and its root system.
a) As a food: Its uses as a food are as follows:
Juice production. These juices are very rich in vitamins and have a very good taste.
With his leaves healing beverages are made.
Leaves, young shoots and fruit residues after processing can be used as feed for farm animals.
Alcoholic beverages, such as liqueurs and a kind of wine.
b) As a medicinal plant:
The local applications of hippophae oil are suitable for the treatment of skin irritations from sun, heat, but also from burns from the effects of chemical substances or cosmic rays, eczema and healing of wounds difficult to heal.
Peppermint oil derived from its seeds is very rich in vitamins (C, E, A, B1, B2, F, K, F), tocopherols, flavonoids, polyunsaturated acids, phytosterols, sugars, etc. All of these substances have valuable pharmaceutical properties for internal or external use.
c) As a plant used by the cosmetics industry
The hippophae is suitable for the cosmetics industry
The main types of cosmetics produced by the hippophaes are: Day and night creams, eye care creams, face masks, body lotions, body oil, hand creams, deodorant emulsions, gels, etc.
d) As a plant with coloring properties.
The leaves and juice shoots contain a substance that is used in the yarn dyeing industry because it combines with iron salts to give a wonderful gray color.
Its fruit dyes are used in the food industry and the pharmaceutical industry.
e) Plant of agronomic and environmental interest:
Its root system branches very quickly, and has the rare property of absorbing atmospheric nitrogen in association with actinomycetes.
Also, the hippophae is a plant that can withstand high levels of sodium chloride in the soil and is therefore suitable for planting along roads where salt is spread in winter to protect it from ice.
It is used as an anti-corrosion plant on sloping terrains, with results very impressive in the rehabilitation of many sloping soils and especially of the soils.
It is used as a plant in which wildlife finds shelter, but also as a windsurf plant.
As an ornamental plant in Garden Architecture.